Tibetan-Chinese Buddhism MetaTranslation

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藏譯漢過程中採用玄奘譯例存在的問題

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Translating Buddhist literatures into English involved lesser difficulty in comparison of Chinese, because English is relatively a new language introduced to Buddhist literatures, and therefore, it has much freedom in choosing words to interprete Buddhist terminology. Chinese, however, has a long history of being employed in Buddhist translation. It is one of the major languages responsible for the spread and further development of Buddhism in Asia. For a Buddhist translator living in modern tme, he has to respect traditional terminology established by historical translators, for whose works have been familiarized by Chinese Buddhist followers; and he cannot just invent new terms, without consulting the tradition.

我們目前在翻譯藏文佛典文獻時,在對佛學術語的翻譯上為了統一而盡量採用玄奘的譯例,但這裡存在一些問題。為了分析這些問題,首先說明一下我們所依據的玄奘譯例的來源。我們主要是從玄奘所譯的《瑜伽師地論》、《俱舍論》和《大乘阿毗達摩集論》等中尋找譯例。使用的資料包括:

  • Koitsu Yokoyama, Index to the Yogacarabhumi, Chinese-Sanskrit-Tibetan(《瑜伽師地論》漢-梵-藏索引。電子文件版,藏文條目提前)
  • Akira Hirakawa, Index to the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya(《俱舍論》梵-藏-漢、藏-梵-漢索引)
  • Gadjin M. Nagao, ed., An Index to Asaṅga’s Mahāyānasaṃgraha(無著《大乘阿毗達磨集論》藏-梵-漢索引)

問題分類

  • 藏漢翻譯原則的不同
  • 還是因為梵文術語的多釋性,藏譯可能作了與漢譯(玄奘譯)不同的取向。
  • 玄奘所據梵文本可能與藏譯所據梵文不同。
  • 上下文語境不同造成同一術語的不同譯法,因此不能以單一的譯例對譯不同上下文中的詞匯。
  • 由於漢語言演變,一些古譯(奘譯)用詞已不適宜或詞義發生了過大改變。
  • 玄奘譯例缺如。

下面具體分析

【藏漢翻譯原則的不同】
藏譯多採取意譯法,漢譯常採取音寫法。當梵文術語存在多釋性時,這個問題就更加突出。如bhagavan, arhat

【漢藏翻譯取向不同】
隨特別傳授義而釋
bhagavan:漢文意譯作『世尊』,藏文意譯作bcom ldan vdas(破壞-具有-超越)
舉例,如yamāntaka一詞,從構詞法分析:yamāntaka = yama + antaka,yama是閻摩(地獄主/死主)、antaka是『令終結』,所以yamāntaka義爲『令死主終結者』即『金剛能怖』(大威德金剛)。但,在秘密教授中,這個詞會被分開爲ya-man-ta-ka而對各部分作特別釋義。如金剛能怖心咒om yamāntaka hūm phat。。。

【上下文語境不同】
不能受個別譯法誤導。如bdud sde dpung bcas
(繼續中)

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Written by sherabchen

May 17, 2011 at 7:16 pm

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