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《特別護法葬場主𩚥力奉施法》

with 14 comments

供養特別護法葬場主bali法 (download PDF)

An Annotated Translation of the Sadhana for Offering Bali to Shri Shmashana Adhipati 藏漢合璧版

【關於此護法名稱及譯法重要說明】

當我們說到那若空行或吉祥勝樂法門中的一尊特別(不共)護法,即住在墳場等處理屍體的地方,現為骷髏相的護法(雙尊)時,流行的稱謂是『尸陀林主』或『寒林主』。這一稱謂實屬一種歷史性錯誤。但因其流行如此普遍,從未有人認真追究,於是以訛傳訛至今,以致一些譯者(包括本人在內)雖知其誤,但為了順從大眾(所謂世間稱許),也曾一直沿用『尸陀林主』這一稱謂,頂多會加個註解。去年,應法友才仁之求而翻譯此尊護法的一種供養儀軌時,法友慈祥嚴肅地要求我(是地,他的法名叫『慈祥』,但他很『嚴肅』)借此機會將此名稱譯例加以訂正並作說明,故有下文。順便一提,漢傳佛教中這樣的『歷史訛誤』不止一個,漢傳佛教因循守舊的習氣也十分嚴重,我們認為實有必要利用翻譯學習藏傳佛教的良機,一一予以舉出討論並求正解。

藏文དུར་ཁྲོད་བདག་པོ་,其中དུར་ཁྲོད་指處理屍體的地方(དུར་意為屍體,ཁྲོད་有集中、中間和場所等義),བདག་པོ་即主人或主宰。在學習藏傳佛教的漢語族群中,此護法名稱流行的譯法是『尸陀林主』或『寒林主』。但這其實是一種錯誤的譯法。糾其原因,要從這個藏文詞所對應的梵文śmaśāna-adhipati,一詞中śmaśāna部分在舊譯漢文佛教典籍中的誤譯說起。在舊譯中這個片語普遍被誤譯作『尸陀林』或『寒林』,但『尸陀林』或『寒林』的真正梵文應該是śītavana而不是śmaśāna。梵文śītavana(藏文བསིལ་བའི་ཚལ་)半音譯作『尸陀林』,意譯為『寒林』,因為śītaབསིལ་བ་)意為寒冷,vanaཚལ་)意為林。śītavana(尸陀林/寒林)是佛經中記載的摩揭陀境內一個處理屍體的場所。所以,『尸陀林』或『寒林』是特稱。而śmaśāna是泛稱,指任何處理屍體的場所。這一片語的釋義也完全不同。śmaśānaśmaśāna兩部分組成,śma釋為śava,即『屍體』,śāna釋為śanaya,意為『間』,因此śmaśāna意指處理屍體的場所。這一片語與藏文對譯དུར་ཁྲོད་的含義完全相同。玄奘將śmaśāna譯作『塚間』,這是因為漢地的風俗習慣稱埋葬屍體的場所為『塚』。考慮到印藏習俗中處理屍體的方式不一定是掩埋,我們認為śmaśāna一詞更好的譯法是『葬場』,可以包括火葬或天葬等各種處理屍體的方式。總之,『尸陀林』或『寒林』是特稱,僅指一處葬場;而śmaśāna(藏文དུར་ཁྲོད་)是泛稱,可指任何葬場。但由於在漢文舊譯中『尸陀林』或『寒林』普遍被誤作一種泛稱來使用,意指任何葬場,導致藏文དུར་ཁྲོད་一詞也被誤譯作『尸陀林』或『寒林』,དུར་ཁྲོད་བདག་པོ་這一護法名稱也相應被誤譯作『尸陀林主』或『寒林主』。這實際上是沿襲了舊譯中的錯誤而造成的。另外,必須注意的是,『尸陀林』一詞中『尸陀』是梵文śīta的音寫,意為寒冷,這裡的『尸』字不是指屍體,而是śī的音寫。但一些舊譯文獻中確有將『尸陀林』誤寫作『屍陀林』者,加之晚近簡化字的流行,『屍』字被簡化為『尸』,導致很多人都誤解『尸陀林』一詞中的『尸』字為『屍體』,以為『尸陀林』就是指丟棄屍體的樹林,而將『尸陀林』簡作『屍林』,這實在是一種極大的訛誤。雖然『尸陀林』的確是一處丟棄屍體的地方,但這個地名的含義卻不是丟棄屍體的樹林(屍林)而是一片寒冷的樹林,因此『寒林』才是śītavana的正確意譯。綜上所述,藏文དུར་ཁྲོད་一詞應譯作『葬場』,這一護法名稱དུར་ཁྲོད་བདག་པོ་應譯作『葬場主』。

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Written by sherabchen

April 12, 2013 at 8:35 pm

14 Responses

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  1. where is “特別護法塚間主朵瑪供法”, I could not find it

    don

    November 17, 2013 at 5:37 am

    • Hi Don,

      Sorry for the confusion. We finally decided not to share this in public. If you need a copy please give me your email and I can send you one!

      Best,
      Sherab

      sherabchen

      November 19, 2013 at 7:41 pm

      • Hi Sherab,

        I’m a tantric practitioner of Gelug, and have been looking for a sadhana for Shri Shmashana Adhipati for ages, I would really appreciate it if you could email us the file for practices of the protector.

        Cheers.

        Will

        April 18, 2014 at 2:47 pm

    • Oh, I saw your email — so you don’t need to give me again. Just wonder if you need this sandhana for practice or any purposes? Best,

      sherabchen

      November 19, 2013 at 7:42 pm

  2. Hello Sherab, sorry to bother you, but I myself practice atipati, so wonderful if I could have one PDF from you. Thank you so much. Love in Dharma.

    Peter

    July 9, 2015 at 1:50 am

  3. 請問,無灌頂可修此法嗎?

    king

    September 17, 2015 at 11:36 am

    • King:你好!回答您的問題,我認為還是需要先得到本尊法的傳授,然後再修習此尊護法,否則,沒有什麼意義。

      sherabchen

      September 20, 2015 at 5:15 am

    • 一般都附屬於那若空行修法中,不單獨修。

      sherabchen

      September 27, 2016 at 8:44 pm

  4. 嗨,您好!請問您有的 sadhana 是格魯傳承的嗎?請問 sadhana 是中文、英文,還是藏文?我在找英文自己修持用的。

    Fanatica Mtsui

    April 18, 2017 at 6:05 pm

    • 是格魯傳承,我的翻譯是藏漢對照的!

      sherabchen

      April 18, 2017 at 6:48 pm

      • 請問您可否寄一份給我呢?

        Fanatica Mtsui

        April 19, 2017 at 7:08 pm

  5. 另外,這兩個網址已經無效。麻煩您回應。謝謝!

    A Sadhana of Offering Torma to Shri Shmashana Adhipati Chinese translation with Tibetan and notes (PDF)

    【文件】藏漢合璧版 (PDF文檔)

    Fanatica Mtsui

    May 1, 2017 at 1:37 pm

    • Hi Fanatica, Thanks for yur interest. I just made some signification revision on this translation. Now you can download the latest version right from this post – there’s a link to the PDF file. I will only keep this download link for a short term of time.

      sherabchen

      June 21, 2017 at 3:27 pm

      • Thank you for replying. I have downloaded it finally! All the best.

        Fanatica Mtsui

        July 2, 2017 at 3:57 pm


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