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《特別護法塚間主朵瑪供法》

with 11 comments

A Sadhana of Offering Torma to Shri Shmashana Adhipati Chinese translation with Tibetan and notes (PDF)

【文件】藏漢合璧版 (PDF文檔)

【關於『尸陀林主』名稱之訛誤及正譯『塚間主』名義】

當我們說到那若空行或吉祥勝樂法門中的一尊特別(不共)護法,即住在墳場,現為骷髏相的護法(雙尊)時,流行的稱謂是『尸陀林主』或『寒林主』。這一稱謂實屬歷史性誤傳。但因其流行如此普遍,從未有人認真追究,於是以訛傳訛至今,以致一些譯者(包括本人在內)雖知其誤,但為了順從大眾『世間稱許』,也曾一直沿用『尸陀林主』,頂多會加個註解。去年,應法友才仁之求而翻譯此尊護法的一種朵瑪供養儀軌時,法友慈祥嚴肅地要求我(是地,他的法名叫『慈祥』,但他很『嚴肅』)借此機會將此名稱譯例加以訂正並作說明,故有下文。順便一提,漢傳佛教中這樣的『歷史訛誤』不止一個,漢傳佛教因循守舊的習氣也十分嚴重,我們認為實有必要利用翻譯學習藏傳佛教的良機,一一予以舉出討論並求正解。

『塚間主』:藏文dur khrod bdag po,梵文śmaśāna-adhipati。(在漢地佛教信眾中)流行的名稱『尸陀林主』或『寒林主』系訛誤,正譯當作『塚間主』。藏文dur khrod,即梵文śmaśāna,玄奘譯例為『塚間』。而音譯『尸陀林』或意譯『寒林』是梵文śītavana(藏文bsil ba’i tshal)的對譯,是佛經記載的摩揭陀境內一處棄屍場。所以,『尸陀林』是特稱,指一處『塚間』;而『塚間』是泛稱,指一切棄屍處。毋庸置疑,此本尊是所有塚間或棄屍場之主宰,並非只是住在摩揭陀的『尸陀林』那一處!儀軌中的事業咒中也明確給出śrī-śmaśāna-adhipati(室利-悉瑪夏那-阿梯巴底)即『吉祥塚間主』的名稱。此外,注意『尸陀林』一詞中『尸陀』是梵文śīta的音寫,有寒冷的意思,因此正確的意義是『寒林』;但因古譯音寫法用了『尸』字而被誤解為『屍體』,因此進而有將『尸陀林』簡寫作『屍林』的,貌似有理,實屬訛誤。雖然『尸陀林』的確是一處丟棄屍體的地方,但這個地名的意思卻不是『屍林』。而『塚間』(梵文śmaśāna,藏文dur khrod)才是『棄屍地』或『火葬場』等的總稱。

梵文śmaśāna(悉瑪夏那)一詞由śma和śāna兩部分組成,śma即śava屍體,śāna即śanaya意為『間』(或『床』),因此玄奘譯作『塚間』。這個詞在印度現在多指火葬場(cremation ground),這從此尊護法另一(不是正名的)名稱citipati也可看出,citika即火化堆(funeral pile),citipati即『火葬場之主』。但從古梵文śmaśāna(悉瑪夏那)一詞『屍-間』的名義上,似可推知印度更古老的處理屍體方式並非火葬,而是丟棄到一處(任鳥獸啄食),因此『悉瑪夏那』就是漢文意義上的墳場(charnel ground),這也與佛教典籍中對這類地方的描述吻合,同時證明玄奘譯例『塚間』一詞中『塚』字使用的正確性。

【譯跋】
此塚間主朵瑪供獻儀軌文係應才仁法友請求,從恩師楊公諱德能(法名丹巴南傑此云教勝)之手抄一那若空行儀軌藏文法本摘錄譯出(原件現藏恩師故宅),對抄本中個別藏文字作有修訂,見下註2。譯者謹識,2012年7月29日(農曆六月初十會供日後)於美俄州哥市藍琉璃光譯室。

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Written by sherabchen

April 12, 2013 at 8:35 pm

11 Responses

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  1. where is “特別護法塚間主朵瑪供法”, I could not find it

    don

    November 17, 2013 at 5:37 am

    • Hi Don,

      Sorry for the confusion. We finally decided not to share this in public. If you need a copy please give me your email and I can send you one!

      Best,
      Sherab

      sherabchen

      November 19, 2013 at 7:41 pm

      • Hi Sherab,

        I’m a tantric practitioner of Gelug, and have been looking for a sadhana for Shri Shmashana Adhipati for ages, I would really appreciate it if you could email us the file for practices of the protector.

        Cheers.

        Will

        April 18, 2014 at 2:47 pm

    • Oh, I saw your email — so you don’t need to give me again. Just wonder if you need this sandhana for practice or any purposes? Best,

      sherabchen

      November 19, 2013 at 7:42 pm

  2. Hello Sherab, sorry to bother you, but I myself practice atipati, so wonderful if I could have one PDF from you. Thank you so much. Love in Dharma.

    Peter

    July 9, 2015 at 1:50 am

  3. 請問,無灌頂可修此法嗎?

    king

    September 17, 2015 at 11:36 am

    • King:你好!回答您的問題,我認為還是需要先得到本尊法的傳授,然後再修習此尊護法,否則,沒有什麼意義。

      sherabchen

      September 20, 2015 at 5:15 am

    • 一般都附屬於那若空行修法中,不單獨修。

      sherabchen

      September 27, 2016 at 8:44 pm

  4. 嗨,您好!請問您有的 sadhana 是格魯傳承的嗎?請問 sadhana 是中文、英文,還是藏文?我在找英文自己修持用的。

    Fanatica Mtsui

    April 18, 2017 at 6:05 pm

    • 是格魯傳承,我的翻譯是藏漢對照的!

      sherabchen

      April 18, 2017 at 6:48 pm

      • 請問您可否寄一份給我呢?

        Fanatica Mtsui

        April 19, 2017 at 7:08 pm


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